Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common diseases, infecting one-fourth of the world’s population. Over the last five years, the number of female suffering from genital TB has increased by more than 10%. Tuberculosis morbidity and mortality are increasing rapidly around the world, with a particularly high prevalence among women.
Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is a type of tuberculosis that affects the female reproductive system primarily. Genital tuberculosis is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in women, and it can affect the fallopian tubes, endometrium, ovaries, cervix, and vagina/vulva.
Tuberculosis and fertility
Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but it can also infect the kidneys, digestive tract, brain, and pelvic (genital) organs. In women, genital tuberculosis can affect the fallopian tubes, uterus, and uterine lining, causing uterine wall adhesions, a condition known as Asherman’s syndrome. It infects the fallopian tubes and causes them to become blocked. Genital tuberculosis also affects the endometrium, causing it to thin and menstrual cycles to become less frequent.
Genital tuberculosis is thought to be a silent killer because its symptoms are often undetected and appear late, often after it is too late. As a result, it is critical to treat genital tuberculosis as soon as it is discovered. Ectopic pregnancy may be caused by genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, if left untreated, can cause premature birth, low birth weight, ectopic pregnancy, and increased neonatal mortality.
How can female genital tuberculosis be identified?
It can really resemble several different reproductive issues, making female genital TB a difficult disease to identify. Weight loss, exhaustion, pelvic pain, a strange discharge, a mild fever, and a lack of or unusually heavy bleeding are all common symptoms. Unusual menstrual bleeding are also a sign. There are some women who have genital TB who experience symptoms like irregular periods, bloody vaginal discharge, painful sex, and ongoing pelvic pain.
The analysis of female genital tuberculosis requires a variety of tests. A common method of diagnosing FGTB is a tuberculin skin test or Mantoux test. This test entails injecting a small amount of tuberculosis antigen beneath the skin and monitoring the response. A positive test result indicates tuberculosis exposure but does not confirm FGTB. Other diagnostic tests include chest x-rays, CT scans, and endometrial biopsies.
An endometrial biopsy and menstrual blood culture may aid in the diagnosis of genital tuberculosis. Laparoscopy, in addition to these producers, aids in the detection of genital infections. All of these methods are designed to detect energetic nodules. Nodules are nodules that contain caseous necrosis and are common in tuberculosis patients. All of these procedures aid in the detection of microorganisms in places such as the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Female genital tuberculosis treatment
Early detection of tuberculosis can help in reducing the risk of infertility and reproductive tract damage. As a result, it is critical to begin treatment as soon as genital tuberculosis is detected.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis patients would benefit from a six-month treatment plan containing rifampicin (R). He adopted a two-month intensive phase with isoniazid (H), R, ethambutol (E), and pyrazinamide (Z.) during her four-month continuation part with HR. Tuberculosis patients can receive an intensive phase every day, followed by a continuation phase three times per week.
Furthermore, the primary treatments for FGTB include a variety of drugs administered at appropriate doses and times. A 6- to 9-month course of combination therapy could also be beneficial for FGTB.
In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer are the most effective treatments for women who have blocked fallopian tubes (IVF-ET). Women with thin endometrium or Asherman’s syndrome may need a hysteroscopy before starting an IVF cycle. Several studies have shown that embryo transfer is the most effective IVF treatment for ladies with genital tuberculosis.
How can you reduce the risk of female genital tuberculosis?
Paying attention for signs of infection, such as irregular menstrual cycles, swelling in the genital area, bloody vaginal discharge, bleeding, or pain after intercourse, can help prevent the infection from worsening. If detected at an early stage, take action. Adopting safe sexual practices and getting vaccinated can help both men and women avoid infection is very important.
Though tuberculosis medication can fight the bacterial infection, it cannot reverse the damage it has caused; however, being aware of and educated about the early signs of tuberculosis infection can help guide you through the proper steps and instructions. It is critical to understand that you must ensure that you carry out properly sooner or later.